Design and fabrication of a Two-wheel Human Transporter

Team Member Are :
Sweethin Hartman
Vishnu M.S.
Varun Rathnakar
Arun Francis P. Devasia

Project Guide: Dr. Raju K. Important features of the project: • Optimum material usage • Cost efficient • Simple design • Easy to use and convenient for traverse over short/long distances   Abstract: PERSONAL TRANSPORT (PT) vehicle is often used to transport a user across mid-range distances in urban environments. It has more degrees of freedom than car/bike and is faster than a pedestrian. This report covers the design and testing of a two wheeled self-balancing vehicle capable of carrying a human by maintaining the wheels underneath the rider’s centre of gravity. The aim of the project was to design and build a self-balancing PERSONAL TRANSPORT (PT) that functions similarly to the SEGWAY Human Transporter (HT) (the first and only self-balancing vehicle to be commercially available). PT vehicle design draws upon the successes and failures of the SEGWAY HT and other attempts at producing self-balancing PT vehicle which utilize various automatic control methods. Angular feedback from a gyroscopic sensor and PWM output to motors is used in a control system to achieve balance of PT vehicle. The process PT vehicle goes through to self balance is similar to how a human balances. The human brain recognizes the force due to gravity on the vestibular system and is able to discern the direction it is coming from. The brain then sends impulses to the muscles in the limbs to help provide balance. Similarly, the microcontroller receives information from sensors, interprets the information and then sends commands to the drive system to maintain balance. PT Vehicle was designed to be robust and easy to use whilst not compromising on strength. After some small changes to the initial design, the completion of a fully functioning prototype was achieved. PT satisfies all the basic specifications and project goals and is enjoyable to ride.

Design And Fabrication Of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine To Generate Electricity

Team Member Are :
Sukesh Kumar Jain K - 4SO11ME424
Prashantha - 4SO11ME414
Raghavendra Acharya - 4SO11ME417
Raksha - 4SO11ME418
Shwetha Kumari K.R - 4SO11ME422

Project Guide: Mr. Prathviraj H, Assistant Professor, B.E., M.Tech, MISTE Abstract: We know that there is enough wind globally to satisfy much, or even most, of humanity's energy requirements – if it could be harvested effectively and on a large scale. Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs), which may be as efficient as current horizontal axis systems, might be practical, simpler and significantly cheaper to build maintain than horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) are a type of wind turbine where the main rotor shaft is set vertically. They also have other inherent advantages, such as they are always facing the wind, which might make them a significant player in our quest for cheaper, cleaner renewable sources of electricity. In this project we attempt to design and fabricate a Vertical Axis Helical Blade Wind Turbine to absorb wind energy to produce power and also reduce the negative thrust that is generally present in the vertical axis wind turbine. More over local wind velocity is not steady; power could not be generated on a continuous basis. Here we are getting maximum up to 140rpm rotation of blade at 2.7m/s velocity of air.

Analysis And Study On Coconut Shell Particulate Composite With Epoxy Resin Matrix

Team Member Are :
Elvis D’cruz - 4SO10ME024
Glen D’souza - 4SO10ME037
Aron D’souza - 4SO10ME119
Teran Nunes - 4SO10ME006
Nikhil Menezes - 4SO09ME069

Project Guide: Mr. Rudolf Charles D’souza, Senior Lecturer, Department of Mechanical Engineering Abstract: Over the last thirty years, composite materials, plastics and ceramics have been the dominant emerging engineering materials. The volume and number of applications of composite materials have grown steadily, penetrating and concurring new market relentlessly. Agricultural waste which includes shell of various dry fruits, rice husks, wheat husk straws and hemp fiber can be used to prepare fiber reinforced polymer composite for commercial use. So there is a great opportunity in developing new bio based products. Natural fibers are of basic interest due to their many advantages from the point of weight and fiber matrix adhesion. Environment regulation and ethical concern have triggered the search for materials that are environmentally friendly. So recycling of waste products and other agricultural by-products are suitable for the invention and characterization of new materials. In this study the composites are made from the coconut shell powder (particles) and mixed with epoxy resin and phenol resin in different moulds to get different composite samples. Composite samples are made with different volume ratios like 10%, 20%, and 30% of coconut shell powder. Then these samples are to be subjected to various tests like shear, tensile, hardness, impact and heat treatments, and their results will be discussed. In many coconut companies of India coconut shell is a waste product and it doesn’t have many applications in any field. These shells were used to make coconut shell powder and mixed with epoxy resin to form a composite material. The morphology and mechanical properties of coconut shell reinforced resin composite have been evaluated to establish the possibility of using it as a new material for engineering applications. Coconut shell reinforced composite was prepared by compacting low density epoxy resin matrix with 10%, 20% & 30% volume fraction coconut shell particles and the effect of the particles on the mechanical properties of the composite produced was investigated. The result shows that the hardness of the composite increases with increase in coconut shell content though the tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, impact energy and ductility of the composite decreases with increase in the particle content. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the composites (with 10% - 30% particles) surfaces indicates poor interfacial interaction between the coconut shell particle and the low density epoxy matrix. This study therefore exploits the potential of agro-based waste fiber as an alternative particulate material for the development of a new composite. Main Features:  There are 2 parts of the project: 1. To crush coconut shell and to get powder of 150 microns. 2. To conduct comparative studies on the composite material made using various different amount of coconut shell powder (in this experiment 10%, 20%, 30%, of total volume) with epoxy resin and by conducting various tests like: • Tensile Test • Bending Test • Hardness Test • Impact Test • Water Absorption Test • Microstructure Analysis  Coconut shell powder was obtained by following process:Coconut shells were made free from contamination of coir pith, etc. These shells were kept for drying in the sun. After the moisture was removed, dry coconut shell was crushed using hand grinder and hammer on anvil. This crushed coconut shell was fed in jaw crusher through which fine particles of shell were obtained. This powder of different particle size was then separated from each other using a sieve shaker. Particle size selected was 150 microns, mesh size selected was 45.  This coconut shell powder thus obtained was mixed with epoxy resin and hardener in 10%, 20% and 30% volume proportion to make a composite material.  Moulds used in this study are made from sheet metal and wood base. These are open moulds. Each mould has a cavity to accommodate the composite samples. The dimensions and shape of the cavity are made according to the size and shape of the samples. Various types of moulds are made for different samples.  Above given tests were conducted. Test results were calculated and a comparative study was established between samples with different proportions of composite materials.

Improvement In The Performance Of Diesel Engine By Blending Water Vapour

Team Member Are :
Nikhil Ullas D’silva - 4SO10ME073
Anand Rohan Pinto - 4SO11ME400
Ralph Avinash Menezes - 4S010ME086
Praveen Clinton Galbow - 4SO10ME079

Project Guide: Dr. Joseph Gonsalvis, Principal Abstract: Diesel engines are most widely used among internal combustion engines for generation of power. These engines consume mineral fuels which are expected to last for another 50 years. Efforts are made to find alternative energy sources. However, if methods are evolved to conserve the available fuel, it can be extended for few more years. In this direction different methods have been proposed and have attained 10% fuel saving with marginal decrement of pollutants produced. Certain methods employed are directly affecting the engine’s life by way of corrosion. A novel solution to the above problem has been implemented in this work in which water is admitted to the engine in the form of pure vapour produced by creating low surface pressure on the water stored in a container. Blending of water vapour with the incoming air is done by allowing the fresh air to flow over the surface of water contained in a chamber. The low pressure created in the induction manifold during suction will be acting inside the water chamber. Such a low pressure assists in evaporating the water forming the vapours of water which enter the combustion chamber along with the air. Further such continuous evaporation will also take away the heat from the water in the chamber cooling it. The drop in temperature may reach 5°C to10°C below the normal. Such drop in temperature will also decrease the specific volume of the ingoing air or in other words mass flow rate of air will increase directly proportional to the drop in temperature. Additionally the water vapour thus admitted will become superheated steam and augment the pressure build up inside the combustion chamber which helps in producing more power. This concept has been practically tried on 3.75 kW 4 stroke diesel stationary engine running at 1500 rpm (governor controlled). The results of the experiments conducted at different load are highly encouraging. The fuel consumption is reduced by 10.7%. The NOx gas in the exhaust has reduced by 37.07%. CO2 is increased by 10.81%. These values are compared with the performance of engine without the water vapour. The increase of carbon dioxide indicates better combustion environment for the fuel. The temperature of the exhaust gas measured has also shown an increase which clearly indicates that the internal energy of the gases post ignition is much higher which is responsible for the production of additional power and decrease in fuel consumption. The results have clearly indicated that blending water in the form of vapour using the technique narrated is an effective method to reduce fuel consumption which can be profitably commercialised for the energy starved country Features: • Reduces fuel consumption by 10% • Reduces emissions • Increases brake thermal efficiency • Simple in construction.

Solar Water Purification By Using Thermal Method And Comparing Its Performance With Solar Still

Team Member Are :
Stalson Nikhil Fernandes - 4SO10ME104
Eldon Bernard Fernandes - 4SO10ME030
Furtado Klint Eric - 4SO10ME033
Akshay Dinesh - 4SO10ME009

Project Guide: Mr. Sampath Kumar B, Assistant Professor, Department Of Mechanical Engineering Abstract: There is almost no water left on earth that is safe to drink without purification after 20-25years from today. This is a seemingly bold statement, but it is unfortunately true. Only 1% of Earth's water is in a fresh, liquid state, and nearly all of this is polluted by both diseases and toxic chemicals. For this reason, purification of water supplies is extremely important. Keeping these things in mind, we have devised a model which will convert the dirty/saline water into pure/potable water using the renewable source of energy (i.e. solar energy). The basic modes of the heat transfer involved are radiation, convection and conduction. The results are obtained by evaporation of the dirty/saline water and fetching it out as pure/drinkable water. The designed model produces 1.5 litres of pure water from 14 litres of dirty water during six hours. Important Features: • Parabolic Reflection is the main design feature of this water purification. • Copper coil spirally wound on a G.I. pipe is a unique design which absorbs lot of heat. • Thermal conductivity of copper is 400W/mK which is very high when compared to other commercially available metals. • Has 2 stage purification system. • We get Purified water heated upto 60ºC and also gets cooled down to 35ºC after the condensation process.

Rotary Drum Type Coconut De Husker

Team Member Are :
Melroy Ivon Dsouza - 4SO10ME064
Loyan Jaison D’sa - 4SO10ME056
Rahul Jithin Rasquinha - 4SO10ME085
Abhilash K. - 4SO10ME003

Project Guide: Mr Sharun Mendonca DME, AMIE, M.Tech. Abstract: Application of technology to improve the productivity in agricultural sector is an ongoing and continuous process. Rural industry (mainly agriculture) based engineering projects have gained a lot of emphasis in recent times because of its need and usefulness in uplifting the quality of life. A Coconut De-Husker is a machine designed to facilitate easy separation of the outer husk from the coconut. Different types of equipment have been devised for the purpose of de-husking, realizing the need for improving the speed of de-husking. They range from the most primitive methods to complex machines. Unlike other agriculture based machines, coconut de-husking machines can be designed uniquely, some retain the fiber of the husks while other shred off the husks completely making it difficult for the further processing. Some require absolute manual power while power driven machines consume high power of the order of 1.0 kW to 3.5 kW The problem associated with the conventional coconut de-husking equipment is that it cannot de-husk the coconut in one stroke, due to which its productivity is low. Moreover coconuts are of variable sizes' hence the thickness of the husk varies. As the thickness of the husk increases, the effort involved in de-husking also increases. De-husking the coconut using the conventional de-husker is a tedious task as the coconut has to be positioned at least thrice for each coconut. This in turn consumes a lot of time. This project is mainly concentrated on increasing the productivity of the equipment and to make it a safer one. This machine consumes 1.4 kW of power and DE husks about 200 coconuts per hour. The cost of the machine is Rs.20, 000. Further this project intends to increase productivity by replacing labour intensive manual DE husking process and makes it a safer to operate. Main Features: • This system is an automated coconut de husker, which is made up of very few parts 1. Motor 2. 2 Pulleys 3. Three Gears 4. 2 Rollers with cones as blades • To increase the coconut husk removal rate to above 180 coconuts per hour • To remove the coconut husk in a much cleaner way. • The system involves a unique design of blades in the form of cones where circular rings are casted along with the cones. • To make it feasible and economical for the farmers in India.

Design, fabrication and analysis of a Quadcopter incorporating a truss design for the boom

Team Member Are :
Amitha Moras - 4SO10ME015
Joesh Jaime Monteiro - 4SO10ME049
Kevin Joshua Carvalho - 4SO10ME053
Dion Mattew D’Souza - 4SO10ME062

Project Guide: Mr. Prathviraj H, Asst. Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering Abstract: A Quadcopter is an unmanned aerial vehicle designed for the purpose of flight whose applications are found in the field of defence, surveillance and broadcasting. As the name suggests, a quadcopter consists of four motors which impart the necessary upward force to render it airborne and a radio transmitter-receiver controls the manoeuvring. It is a Vertical Take-off and Landing (VTOL) model. The variable speeds of the four motors are individually controlled by Electronic Speed Controllers (ESC) which helps provide directionality to the quadcopter. The structure of the quadcopter is a hollow anodized aluminium frame, incorporating a truss design. The central base-plate is a square Bakelite plate. A Proportional Integral Differential (PID) controller, is the brain of the quadcopter which is programmed using the C language. The goal of our project is to survey the intended areas using a live video feed through an on-board camera. Keywords: Quadcopter, Proportional integral differential (PID) controller, truss design. Main Features: • A truss design is incorporated in the arms of the quadcopter which helps to reduce its weight by 41% • Increase in payload due to reduction in weight • A sensor stick is included in the circuit to improve the stability of the flight • A camera is mounted on-board which helps to provide a live video feed of the terrain over which the quadcopter hovers.

To Automate The Changeover Mechanism For The Prill Bucket System In The Production Of Urea

Team Member Are :
Vaishak Gatty - 4SO10ME108
Roland Nonis - 4SO10ME092
Rohit Verma - 4SO10ME090
Marlon Nicholas - 4SO08ME060
Steevan Varghese - 4SO07ME100

Project Guide: Mr. Ravikantha Prabhu, B.E. M.Tech, Asst. Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Abstract: Agriculture in India has a significant history. Today, India ranks second worldwide in farm output. Agriculture is demographically the broadest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic fabric of India. Agriculture is aided by fertilizer companies, one amongst which is Mangalore Chemicals and Fertilisers Ltd. Urea in the form of a small aggregate particle called the prill is powdered and then supplied to farmers. The machine which converts the molten urea into prills is called the prilling machine. Our project is aimed at automating the changeover mechanism of this prilling machine present at Mangalore Chemicals and Fertilisers Ltd. The molten urea gets clogged in the fine holes of bucket of the prilling machine. The feed of molten urea is given to this bucket spinning at 760rpm and due to centrifugal action, the droplets get thrown outward. When heat is rejected by this droplet, it forms prills. When this bucket gets clogged, the feed overflows and the whole batch of urea has to be rejected and the production is halted until the clogged bucket is replaced by a standby bucket placed on the opposite side of the machine. For this the heavy clogged bucket has to be lifted from its position, the prilling machine has to be swiveled 180̊ and the standby bucket inserted for resuming production. The problems faced in this operation are that the clogged bucket’s weight increases due to the solidified urea inside. For this replacing operation three personnel are required who manually raise the bucket by using a handwheel. Urea dust which is continuously forming from the feed is a hazardous material if inhaled by the personnel. The risk to a human being from malfunction or failure of parts on the machine is also a major concern. The space next to the machine for this operation also proves to be a problem hindering mobility of machines and personnel. Our project makes use of a electro mechanical system consisting of a motor, worm drive gearbox, couplings and a clamp using which the lifting and lowering mechanism can be operated by a single person. It also reduces the downtime drastically. Using our system, the human effort is reduced and number of personnel is reduced from 3 to 1 which makes a colossal difference in terms of risks during this operation. To conclude our system makes the whole process faster, safer, reduces effort and also makes it economical. Unique Features: 1. Operation of our setup is in extreme corrosive environment of the urea dust. For this special stainless steel (SS 410) will be used to manufacture the clamp, shaft and the movable frame. 2. Parts and materials are selected are according to American Petroleum Institute (API) standards, Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) standards and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) standards to coincide with the industrial standards the setup is going to be used in. 3. The setup works under hazardous environment of urea vapour which causes irritation in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, causes irritation to skin and eyes and a longer exposure will lead to protein metabolism disturbances, moderate emphysema, and chronic weight loss. As our setup reduces the changeover time, the personnel operating the system is effected less by the urea vapour. 4. The height at which the setup will be working. The prilling machine is placed on the top of a six storey high ammonia tower and is open and subjected to the elements of nature. This was also considered during the selection of the materials. 5. A cost effective and a safe solution is provided for a large scale industrial problem. 6. Drastic reduction of downtime. This also translates to monetary gains which was calculated to be Rs.40,500/- (approx) per breakdown. 7. Downtime is reduced by less than half. Calculated reduction of downtime is from 15 minutes to about 6 minutes.

Road Power Generation

Team Member Are :
Godwin Monteiro - 4SO10ME039
Jay Rajendra Raythatha - 4SO10ME043
Akshay Nh - 4SO10ME010
Ajay Kaushik Noronha - 4SO10ME007

Project Guide: Mr. Sampath Kumar Abstract: The objective of this project is to design, fabricate and demonstrate a system for generation of power through the motion of automobiles on a road surface. The apparatus consists of a mechanism which converts the linear action of the lever into the rotary motion of the flywheel via roller chain mechanism. The flywheel is coupled with a brushless fixed coil generator that produces electricity which is used to charge a battery. The lever is actuated by the lateral motion of the plate sliding over the road surface. The plate is actuated by the virtue of frictional force of the wheels rolling over plate. The generator rotor consists of a ring of fixed neodymium magnets that induce electromotive force ( e.m.f ) in the fixed stator coils. The fixed coils have alternating pulses as output. In order to regulate polarity and approximate the alternating waveform to a steady direct current a bridge rectifying circuit is employed. An output of nearly 18- 20 volts is obtained. Using a voltage regulator a steady voltage of 5 volts is obtained.. The output can be further improved by increasing the number of coils in the stator. Unique features:  It does not depend upon the weather conditions unlike solar or wind energy.  Eases reliance on power grid thereby reducing load on thermal or nuclear power plants which are non-renewable forms of energy generation.  The system is localized and is a discrete unit.  Zero emissions and thus is safe to use without the associated risk of contributing to global warming unlike conventional sources where coal burning is a major cause.  Non-toxic and does not damage the environment where it is installed.  Parts are easily accessible for maintenance and lubrication and it is serviceable without disrupting traffic flow.  Minimally invasive and less road excavation is needed. Only the lever and rigid plate need to be installed directly under the road surface. The chain assembly and generator is located beside the road.

Design And Fabrication Of A Manual Dough Pressing Machine

Team Member Are :
K Keshav Prabhu - 4SO10ME051
Joel Immanuel Concessao - 4SO10ME047
Deen Dayal P Simon - 4SO10ME026
Steven Delwin Sequeira - 4SO08ME109

Abstract: A Manual Chapatti baking machine is actually an application of technology to improve the quality of work with minimum labor and time, and also with no wastage of material in the continuous process. Construction based engineering projects have gained a lot of emphasis in recent times because of its need and usefulness in uplifting the quality of work. Presently manual kneading of dough is in practice everywhere, due to which the work done is slower and surface finish depends on the skill of the labors because of which the surface finish will not be the same in all chapatti’s , due to which the chapatti appearance might not be good. In manual chapatti preparation there are other problems like manpower required will be more, because of which the labor cost will increase. And in places like hostels and hotels where chapatti’s are to be prepared in large quantities, it is a humongous task for the labors. The main objective of this project was to design a Manual Chapatti baking machine for hotels and hostels by considering the safety and ergonomics. This newly designed machine is small in size, portable, easy to operate, prepares chapatti fast and has low maintenance cost. The machine can also be dismantled for maintenance purpose and can then be assembled using nut and bolt arrangements. The newly designed machine is to produce one chapatti in less than a minute and deliver a tidy operation. This rate of production is certainly a developmental task which can replace the conventional methods of chapatti preparation. Main Features: • Compact and occupies less floor space • Man power required is less • Comparatively faster than human operation • Assembly of the machine can be done on the spot • Working is simple and easy to operate • Low maintenance • Very less amount of manual force is sufficient to operate the lever • Complete utilization of the flue gases in the secondary heating chamber

Automation Of Raw Electrode Transfer Using A Belt Conveyor System

Team Member Are :
Roystar D’Souza - 4SO10ME094
Andrade Nikhil Princeton - 4SO10ME016
Pallavi Koodur - 4SO10ME075
Preetha Marian Pinto - 4SO10ME080

Project Guide: Mr.Pruthvi Loy Serrao B.E., MTech Asst. Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department Abstract: This project automates the transfer of raw cut rods from the base to a hopper using a conveyor belt. It is based entirely on the knowledge and theory of our engineering syllabus. The hopper guides the rods further for flux coating and printing. The conveyor belt is inclined at a specific angle to the base and is supported by a metal frame. A motor drives a pulley which in turn runs a continuous belt. The actual speed of the motor is approximately 1440 rpm. Such a high speed is not required; therefore the speed is reduced to 10 rpm by using a gear arrangement. A worker places the cut rods into cups which are sewed onto the belt. The cups empty all the rods onto a tray and into the hopper. The conveyor is built to facilitate easy transfer of the cut rods which are being transported manually at present. The conveyor belt is being constructed for Classic Fusion Metals producing Oshima electrodes at Baikampady Industrial Area, Mangalore. A range of quality products of international standards are available from Classic Fusion Metals, a professionally managed ISO 9001:2000 certified organisation committed to quality and reliable customer services.   Main Features:  Belt Conveyor systems are used widespread across a range of industries due to the numerous benefits they provide. They are able to safely transport materials from one level to another, which when done by human labour would be strenuous and expensive.  Classic Fusion Metals is a small and medium scale industry for the manufacture of welding electrodes. There is a hopper which guides the rods from the cutting machine further for flux coating and printing. The conveyor system is built to facilitate easy transfer of the cut rods into the hopper which is being transported manually at present.  The main components of this belt conveyor system are: Conveyor Belt, Pulley System, Motor, Speed reduction gear, Spacers and cups  The conveyor belt with a pulley system is run by a motor. The belt is looped around each of the pulleys and when one of the pulleys is powered by the electrical motor the belt slides across the solid metal frame bed, moving the rods. A worker places these cut rods into cups and then the conveyor empties them onto a tray and into the hopper.  By knowing how the conveyor system will be used beforehand, choosing the right conveyor type and by paying attention to the right system design we eliminate manual effort through automation.